The Right to be Heard Framework: A learning companion

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The Revised Edition of the Right to be Heard is about people claiming their right to a better life. This Learning Companion aims to guide work and strengthen focus in this area. The Right to Be Heard is a critical part of Oxfam's vision of a just world without poverty. Effective Right to be Heard work is necessarily complex and multi-dimensional. This Learning Companion aims to guide work and strengthen focus in this important area. It is designed to help the reader think through the complexity and make decisions about the combination of approaches to use to achieve their goals. It is aimed primarily at programme staff but will also be useful across humanitarian operations and campaigning.
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  1   PROGRAMMING ON THE RIGHT TO BE HEARD  A learning companion  2 REVISED EDITION CONTENTS Contents ........................................................................................................ 2   Introduction to the Learning Companion .................................................... 3   The Right to Be Heard: A Glossary .............................................................. 4   1. Introduction to the Right to Be Heard ...................................................... 6   Why Oxfam works on the Right to Be Heard............................................... 6   Change Goal Objectives………………………………………………………...8 How the five approaches interact ................................................................ 9    A note on power and politics ....................................................................... 9   Our aim………………………… ................................................................. 10 Underpinning Oxfam’s work ...................................................................... 13   2. Analysing your programme context ...................................................... 15 Why is power analysis so important?.........................................................15 What is a power analysis?..........................................................................16 Enhancing your analysis………………………………………………………18 ã  Gender analysis………………………………………………………..18 ã  Context/situational analysis…………………………………………..18 ã  How politics and the economy intersect…………………………….19 Using your analysis 3. Approaches to Right to Be Heard Programming .................................. 28   Cross-cutting themes: Gender, Governance and Poor Women’s Rights ...................................... 30   Build and Protect Spaces and Alliances for Dialogue and Change ........... 39   Strategies and approaches 1. Organising civil society……………………………………………………43 2. Access to information and technology…………………………………..59 3. Public decision- and policy-making spaces…………………………….64 4. Access to justice…………………………………………………………...77 5. Global citizenship………………………………………………………….80 4. Strengthening Oxfam’s Ways of Working ............................................. 89 MEL through the Right to be Heard lens…………………………………………85 Promoting accountability and participation………………………………………89  Annex – Case study: the Indonesia LISTEN programme ....................... 102    3 INTRODUCTION TO THE LEARNING COMPANION Oxfam’s vision is a just world without poverty. We envisage a society in which people can influence decisions that affect their lives, enjoy their rights and assume their responsibilities as full citizens of a world in which all human beings are valued and treated equally. The Right to Be Heard is a critical part of this vision and underpins the development of all our programmes and our relationships with partners and allies. Effective Right to Be Heard work is necessarily complex and multi-dimensional, and requires action across different levels and domains, employ-ing a range of strategies. This Learning Companion aims to guide our work and strengthen our focus in this important area. It reflects the Oxfam Interna-tional change goal on the Right to Be Heard, and is designed to help you think through that complexity and make decisions about the combination of ap-proaches to use to achieve your goals. It is aimed primarily at programme staff, but will also be useful across all areas of Oxfam’s work, including hu-manitarian operations and campaigning. The Learning Companion is made up of four sections: Section 1 provides an introduction to the Right to Be Heard. Section 2 outlines the different types of analysis that can help you better un-derstand the context you are dealing with, and make choices about where to focus your work. Section 3 gives an overview of the different approaches to Right to Be Heard programming described in the OI Strategic Plan. It provides numerous tools and resources that you can use to support programme implementation. Section 4 looks at how we can strengthen our own ways of working to improve the effectiveness of our Right to Be Heard programmes. This includes Moni-toring, Evaluation and Learning (MEL), and some sample indicators for Right to Be Heard programmes. Each section includes case studies to illustrate key points and provides links to additional tools and resources. Offline users can find a full bibliography at the end of the document. The Companion is not a step-by-step instruction manual, but has been designed so that you can choose the level of information that you need, depending on your experience, context and stage of programming. It can be read as a whole, or you can move directly to the sections that interest you.  4 THE RIGHT TO BE HEARD: A GLOSSARY Right to Be Heard : ‘Poor and marginalised people can gain control over their own lives by exercising their right to political participation, freedom of expression and information, freedom of assembly and access to justice’. Oxfam International Strategic Plan, 2013-19 Governance : The ‘rules of the game’ that govern political, economic and social life plus ‘how the game is played’, i.e. who gets to engage in which aspects, and on what terms, including through formal and informal or traditional structures and processes. Participatory governance :    Approaches to governance that actively   include ordinary citizens and, particularly, marginalised and excluded groups in shaping what happens and how it happens through governance processes. Civil society : The range of non-government actors in a society, including faith-based organisations and trade unions, in addition to the more familiar NGOs and community-based organisations. Technically it should include the business sector, but is not often used in this way. Civil society organisations (CSOs) do not necessarily share objectives with Oxfam.  Accountability : The process through which an organisation balances the needs of stakeholders in its decision-making and activities, and delivers against this commitment. This can be upwards (towards donors) and downwards (towards beneficiaries). Accountability is based on four dimensions: transparency, participation, learning and evaluation, and feedback mechanisms that allow the organisation to give account to, take account of, and be held to account by stakeholders. Social accountability : An approach towards building accountability that relies on ordinary citizens and/or civil society organisations participating directly or indirectly in managing public resources and in exacting accountability from governments and institutions. Mechanisms include participatory budgeting, public expenditure tracking, citizen monitoring of public service delivery, citizen advisory boards, lobbying and advocacy campaigns. State capture : When a small number of powerful self-interested economic actors (or the military) is able to shape the rules of the game and laws, policies and regulations to its own advantage through illicit and non-transparent provision of private benefits to officials and politicians. This form of corruption is increasingly being recognised as the most damaging challenge in political and economic reform. Institutions : Any structure or mechanism of social order and co-operation governing the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given human community. The term ‘institution’ is commonly applied to customs and
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