The Role of Local Institutions in Adaptive Processes to Climate Variability: The cases of southern Ethiopia and southern Mali | Pastoralism

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 34
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Others

Published:

Views: 14 | Pages: 34

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
Farmers and herders in arid regions of Africa face serious challenges in adapting to climate change and variability. They are highly exposed to climate stresses, especially drought, but adaptation to climate change is far from being a clear-cut biophysical or technical problem: it is also a social challenge. Although communities in semi-arid zones have organized their cultures and livelihoods around uncertainty and the risk of drought, climate predictions indicate that new extremes will be a real challenge to their capacity to adapt. This report looks at local social institutions in Ethiopia and Mali and their role in adaptation.
Transcript
  OXFAM RESEARCH REPORT JANUARY 2013 Oxfam Research Reports  are written to share research results, to contribute to public debate and to invite feedback on development and humanitarian policy and practice. They do not necessarily reflect Oxfam policy positions. The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of Oxfam. www.oxfam.org   THE ROLE OF LOCAL INSTITUTIONS IN ADAPTIVE PROCESSES TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY The cases of southern Ethiopia and southern Mali   TODD A. CRANE Wageningen University  2 The Role of Local Institutions in Adaptive Processes to Climate Variability  ABBREVIATIONS  AFD Action for Development  AOPP  Association des Organisation Professionnelles Paysannes  CMDT Compagnie Malienne pour le Développement Textile GDPI Gayo Pastoralist Development Initiative GoE Government of Ethiopia HRD Humanitarian Requirements Document INGO International nongovernmental organization MSc Master of Science NGO Nongovernmental organization PA Peasant association  The Role of Local Institutions in Adaptive Processes to Climate Variability 3 CONTENTS Abbreviations ................................................................................. 2   Executive Summary ....................................................................... 4   Introduction .................................................................................... 5   Local social institutions ................................................................ 7   Research questions and methods ................................................ 9   Findings by subthemes ............................................................... 11   Production strategies ............................................................................................... 12   Land and water governance institutions ................................................................... 14   Social-support systems ........................................................................................... 17   Household, gender, and adaptive-capacity dynamics .............................................. 19   Weather and climate information ............................................................................. 21   External interventions .............................................................................................. 24   Conclusions ................................................................................. 26   Recommendations ....................................................................... 28   References ................................................................................... 29    4 The Role of Local Institutions in Adaptive Processes to Climate Variability EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The research presented in this report was conducted with the goal of describing and analyzing the diverse roles of local social institutions in adaptation processes over the course of recent decades. Field sites were chosen in the agro-pastoral zone of Borana in southern Ethiopia and in the cotton-growing regions of Mali because of these ar  eas’  significant vulnerability and sensitivity to climate variability, particularly drought. The following key questions guided the fieldwork: 1. What role do local social institutions have in long-term adaptation to environmental change? 2. How have extra-local actors interacted with local social institutions in development and adaptation efforts? 3. How is the production and use of weather and climate information organized? Drawing inspiration from Agrawal (2008, 2), local social institutional dynamics were analyzed in terms of how a) they structure impacts and vulnerability, b) they mediate between individual and collective responses to climate impacts and thereby shape outcomes of adaptation, and c) they act as the means of delivery of external resources to facilitate adaptation, and thus govern access to such resources (2008, 2 formatting is author’s ). The research found that local social institutions mediate people’s adaptive processes , production practices, land and water governance, social support systems, gendered household dynamics, use of weather and climate information, and interactions with external actors and interventions. Adaptation is a long-term transformation of social and technical practices and networks. Efforts that build on or complement existing adaptive processes and institutions stand a better chance of being both materially and socially effective. Furthermore, the research showed that local social institutions are rarely fully transparent, democratic, or inclusive. However, this does not necessarily mean that local social institutions lack social legitimacy or accountability. Because of their legitimacy and accountability, it is generally preferable to work with existing institutions instead of attempting to establish new ones. The report concludes with seven recommendations: 1. Development efforts should enhance people’s adaptive capacities so that they are then better able to engage in and lead adaptation processes. 2. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) should look for opportunities to support endogenously led adaptation rather than presuming to initiate adaptation processes. 3. Land and water management issues should simultaneously engage both customary and state institutions, building cooperation and collaboration. 4. Opportunities for market integration should be weighed against the costs that often come in relation to erosion of customary social support mechanisms. 5. Increasing women’s access to educational, political , and financial opportunities will help reduce their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. However, such increases can only be meaningfully achieved through long-term sustained engagement, not short project cycles. 6. Livelihood diversification into economic activities that are not directly climate-dependent should be promoted to reduce vulnerability to climate shocks. This diversification can include cyclical or long-term labor migration. 7. Synergy in weather and climate information production practices should be facilitated through collaborative efforts between customary producers and scientific forecasting.
Recommended
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks