The Scottish Doughnut: A safe and just operating space for Scotland

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The world faces twin challenges: delivering a decent standard of living for everyone, whilst living within our environmental limits. These two interwoven concerns are depicted by Oxfam’s Doughnut Model. It allows people to visualise a space between planetary boundaries (the outer edge of the Doughnut) and a social floor (the inner edge), where it is environmentally and socially safe, but also just for humanity to exist. It is where we must aim to reach.    Building on previous work undertaken by the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Oxfam’s Kate Raworth, the Scottish Doughnut suggests areas of life, or domains, which might constitute a social foundation, below which no one in Scotland should fall. It also begins the process of identifying which planetary boundaries might be useful for incorporation into a national Scottish analysis.   The paper then provides a snap shot of Scotland’s current situation by assessing performance against these suggested domains and indicators.
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  OXFAM RESEARCH REPORTS JULY 2014 Oxfam Research Reports  are written to share research results, to contribute to public debate and to invite feedback on development and humanitarian policy and practice. They do not necessarily reflect Oxfam policy positions. The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of Oxfam.  www.oxfam.org.uk THE SCOTTISH DOUGHNUT  A safe and just operating space for Scotland MALCOLM SAYERS CAMBIUM ADVOCACY DR KATHERINE TREBECK OXFAM The world faces twin challenges: delivering a decent standard of living for everyone, while living within our environmental limits. These two interwoven concerns are depicted by Oxfam ’s  Doughnut model. It allows people to visualize a space between planetary boundaries (the outer edge of the Doughnut) and a social foundation (the inner edge), where it is environmentally and socially safe and just for humanity to exist. It is where we must aim to reach. Building on previous work undertaken by the Stockholm Resilience Centre and former Oxfam Senior Researcher, Kate Raworth, the Scottish Doughnut suggests areas of life, or domains, which might constitute a social foundation below which no one in Scotland should fall. It also begins the process of identifying which planetary boundaries might be useful for incorporation into a national Scottish analysis. The report then provides a snap shot of Scotland’s current situation by assessing performance against these suggested domains and indicators. FRANCIS STUART OXFAM  2 The Scottish Doughnut: A safe and just operating space for Scotland CONTENTS List of figures 3   List of tables 4   List of abbreviations 5   Executive summary 6   Background 6   The Scottish Doughnut report 8   Results 8   1   Introduction 13   2   The ‘Doughnut’ concept: A ‘safe’ and ‘just’ operating space for   humanity 15   3   Methodology for developing a social foundation 17   4   Social foundation results 20   5   Rationale for social foundation results 23   5.1 Connectivity 23   5.2 Crime 25   5.3 Education 26   5.4 Energy 28   5.5 Food 30   5.6 Governance 31   5.7 Health 33   5.8 Housing 36   5.9 Income 38   5.10 Natural environment 40   5.11 Sense of support 42   5.12 Work 44   6   Methodology for developing an environmental ceiling 46   7   Environmental ceiling results 48   8   Rationale for selection of environmental data 50   8.1 Air quality 50   8.2 Biodiversity loss 52   8.3 Chemical pollution 52   8.4 Climate change 53   8.5 Global fresh water 55   8.6 Land-use change 56   8.7 Nitrogen cycle 58   8.8 Ocean health 58   8.9 Ozone depletion 60   8.10 Phosphorous cycle 60   9   Conclusions 62   Bibliography 65   Resources 69   Appendix: Literature review for social foundation 70   Notes 76    The Scottish Doughnut: A safe and just operating space for Scotland 3 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Planetary boundaries 6   Figure 2: Oxfam’s Global Doughnut  7   Figure 3: Environmental ceiling  –  Scotland 2014 9   Figure 4: Social foundation  –  Scotland 2014 11   Figure 5: Oxfam’s Global Doughnut  14   Figure 6: Social foundation  –  Scotland 2014 22   Figure 7: Percentage of those who have never used the internet by gross weekly pay (GB Q1 2014, working age in paid employment) 24   Figure 8: Percentage of each household income bracket (net) composed of those with no qualifications (working age, 2012 Scotland) 27   Figure 9: Percentage in fuel poverty by household type (Scotland 2012) 29   Figure 10: Percentage in fuel poverty by household income (Scotland 2012) 30   Figure 11: Number of years above or below average healthy life expectancy by deprivation quintiles (Scotland 2009  – 10) 34   Figure 12: Number of HLE years compared as percentage of Scottish average by SIMD (0 = Scottish averages, 2009  – 10) 35   Figure 13: Percentage overcrowding in Scotland, based on weekly income (2012) 37   Figure 14: Percentage in relative poverty (60 percent below HBAI AHC, three-year average for 2010  – 11  –  2012  – 13) 39   Figure 15: Percentage of individuals below MIS by household type (UK 2012) 40   Figure 16: Percentage of each grouping that accessed the natural environment at least once per week, according to socio-economic group (Scotland 2012) 41   Figure 17: Level of social support (%) respondents reported being able to depend upon in each situation (Scotland 2012) 43   Figure 18: Sense of support by household income deciles (UK 2012) 43   Figure 19: Sense of support by neighbourhood deprivation (IMD, UK 2012) 44   Figure 20: Environmental ceiling  –  Scotland 2014 49   Figure 21: PM10 level (Scotland 2013) 51   Figure 22: GHG emissions associated with Scottish consumption 1998  – 2010 54   Figure 23: Carbon emissions (selected nations 2008) 55   Figure 24: Percentage of key fish stocks where the total allowable catch limit is consistent with scientific advice (Scotland 2001  – 13) 59   Figure 25: Oxfam’s Scottish Doughnut  63  4 The Scottish Doughnut: A safe and just operating space for Scotland LIST OF TABLES 10   11   20   26   29   32   32   37   41   Table 1: Environmental ceiling results  –  Scotland 2014 Table 2: Social foundation results  –  Scotland 2014 Table 3: Social foundation results  –  Scotland 2014 Table 4: Percentage of adults reporting having been victims of SCJS crime in previous 12 months, 2012  – 13 (Scotland) Table 5: Fuel poverty rates Table 6: Personal political efficacy (Scotland) Table 7: Engagement in politics by educational qualification Table 8: Overcrowding in UK 2011  – 12 Table 9: Percentage of adults living in Scotland who visit outdoor spaces for leisure or recreation at least once per week (2012) Table 10: Environmental ceiling results 48  
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