The Welsh Doughnut: A framework for environmental sustainability and social justice | Sustainability | Economic Inequality

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The world faces twin challenges: delivering a decent standard of living for everyone, while living within our environmental limits. These two interwoven concerns are captured in Oxfam’s Doughnut model, which offers a framework to create a safe and just space for humanity to exist within. At the national level, the Welsh Doughnut model suggests areas of life that might constitute a social floor below which no one in Wales should fall, and begins the process of identifying which environmental boundaries might be useful for incorporation into a Welsh national analysis. This report provides a snapshot of Wales' status by assessing its current position against this suggested set of domains and indicators.
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  OXFAM RESEARCH REPORT MARCH  2015   Oxfam Research Reports  are written to share research results, to contribute to public debate and to invite feedback on development and humanitarian policy and practice. They do not necessarily reflect Oxfam policy positions. The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of Oxfam. www.oxfam.org THE WELSH DOUGHNUT A framework for environmental sustainability and social justice  Malcolm Sayers Cambium Advocacy The world faces twin challenges: delivering a decent standard of living for everyone, while living within our environmental limits. These two interwoven concerns are captured in Oxfam’s Doughnut model  that offers a framework to create a safe and just space for humanity to exist. At the national level, the Welsh Doughnut model suggests areas of life that might constitute a social floor below which no one in Wales should fall, and begins the process of identifying which environmental boundaries might be useful for incorporation into a Welsh national analysis. The report provides a snapshot of Wales’ status by assessing its current position against this suggested set of domains and indicators.  2 CONTENTS List of abbreviations ..................................................................................................... 5   Executive summary ...................................................................................................... 7   1   Introduction .......................................................................................................... 11   2   The Doughnut Model: A ‘safe’ and ‘just’ operating space for humanity  .......... 15   3   Methodology for developing a social floor ........................................................ 17   4   Social floor results .............................................................................................. 20   5   Rationale for social floor results ........................................................................ 22   6   Methodology for developing an environmental ceiling ..................................... 44   7   Environmental ceiling results ............................................................................. 46   8   Rationale for selection of environmental data ................................................... 48   9   Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 60   Appendix: Literature review for social floor ............................................................. 63   Notes ........................................................................................................................... 70    3 LIST OF FIGURES Figure A: The Oxfam Doughnut Model ........................................................................................ 8   Figure B: The Welsh Doughnut (Wales 2014) ............................................................................ 10   Figure 1: SRC Planetary Boundaries model .............................................................................. 12   Figure 2: The Oxfam Doughnut model ....................................................................................... 13   Figure 3: The Wales Doughnut - Social floor (Wales 2014) ..................................................... 21   Figure 4: Levels of digital engagement across key characteristics (% who access internet Wales 2012/13) .............................................................................................................................. 24   Figure 5: Average pay differentials, adults with no formal qualifications compared to those with five GCSEs (% GB 2010, working age) .................................................................... 27   Figure 6: Incidence of fuel poverty by household type (% GB 2013) ...................................... 29   Figure 7: Percentage in fuel poverty by weekly household income (Scotland 2012) ........... 29   Figure 8: Number of years above or below average healthy life expectancy by deprivation quintiles (Wales 2005  – 2009) ........................................................................................................ 33   Figure 9: Number of HLE years compared as percentage of male and female Welsh average by IMD quintile (0 = Welsh averages, 2005  – 2009) ...................................................... 34   Figure 10: Percentage in relative poverty (60 percent below HBAI AHC, 3 year average for 2010/11  –  2012/13) ........................................................................................................................ 38   Figure 11: Percentage of individuals below MIS by household type (UK 2012) .................... 38   Figure 12: Level of social support (%) respondents reported being able to depend upon in each situation (UK 2012) ......................................................................................................... 40   Figure 13: Sense of support by household income deciles (UK 2012)................................... 41   Figure 14: Sense of support by neighbourhood deprivation (IMD, UK 2012) ........................ 41   Figure 15: Environmental ceiling (Wales 2014) ......................................................................... 47   Figure 16: Mean annual PM10 levels (   gm 3 ) across three Welsh urban traffic   testing sites and one urban industrial   site (2011  – 2014) ................................................................................. 49   Figure 17: Populations of breeding farmland birds (UK 1970  – 2013) ...................................... 50   Figure 18: GHG emissions associated with UK consumption (1997  – 2011) ........................... 53   Figure 19: Carbon emissions (selected nations 2008) ............................................................. 53   Figure 20: Percentage of key fish stocks which were considered to be harvested sustainably scientific advice (UK 1990  – 2012) ........................................................................... 57   Figure 21: The Welsh Doughnut (Wales 2014) .......................................................................... 61    4 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Social floor results (Wales 2014) ................................................................................. 20   Table 2: Percentage of adults reporting having been victims of CSEW crime in previous 12 months (Wales and England March 2014) ................................................................................. 26   Table 3: Fuel poverty rates .......................................................................................................... 28   Table 4: Personal political efficacy (Wales 2012)...................................................................... 32   .. 32   Table 6: Disengagement in politics by educational qualification (GB 2012) ......................... 32   Table 7: Overcrowding in England and Wales 2011 ................................................................. 36   Table 8: Environmental ceiling results (Wales 2014)................................................................ 46  
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