Villegas Versus Lingan Case

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Villegas Versus Lingan Case
  ISAAC VILLEGAS, vs. VICTOR LINGAN and ATTY. ERNESTO CARREON, G.R. No. 153839 June 29, 2! E C I S I O N#e$o%e &'e Cou%& (s a )e&(&(on $o% Rev(e* on Ce%&(o%a%( unde% Ru+e 5 o$ &'e Ru+es o$ Cou%& assa(+(n- &'e e(s(on da&ed Nove/0e% 28, 21  %o/u+-a&ed 0 &'e Cou%& o$ Aea+s CA4 (n CAG.R. CV No. 5583!, *'(' a$$(%/ed (n &o&o &'e e(s(on da&ed ee/0e% 19, 1996 o$ &'e Re-(ona+ T%(a+ Cou%& RTC4, #%an' , Tu-ue-a%ao, Ca-aan (n C(v(+ Case No. 5367 and &'e CA Reso+u&(on da&ed June 1, 22, den(n- &'e o&(on $o% Reons(de%a&(on $(+ed 0 Isaa V(++e-as e&(&(one%4.T'(s ase o%(-(na&ed $%o/ a Co/+a(n& $o% Annu+/en& o$ T(&+e and Ins&%u/en& *(&' a/a-es $(+ed 0 &'e e&(&(one% a-a(ns& V(&o% L(n-an %esonden&4 and A&&. E%nes&o Ca%%eon as &'e Re-(s&e% o$ eeds o$ Ca-aan. T'e %esonden& $(+ed '(s Ans*e% and %e&%(a+ ensued. T'e RTC(ssued a )%eT%(a+ O%de% *'e%e(n (& de+a%ed &'a& no $a&ua+ (ssue e(s&s and &'a& &'e so+e +e-a+ (ssue &o 0e %eso+ved (s:;'e&'e% o% no& &'e o*e% o$ a&&o%ne (s a -ene%a+ o*e% o$ a&&o%ne o% a se(a+ o*e% o$ a&&o%ne. Co%%o+a%(+, *'e&'e% uon &'e &e%/s &'e%eo$, &'e a&&o%ne(n$a& G+o%(a Roa Ca&%a+, 'ad au&'o%(&, o% none a& a++, &o eeu&e &'e deed o$ sa+e (n $avo% o$ <%esonden&= V(&o% L(n-an.On &'e 0as(s o$ &'e %e&%(a+ o%de% and uon /o&(on o$ ounse+ $o%  e&(&(one%, *(&'ou& an o0>e&(ons $%o/ %esonden&, &'e ase *as su0/(&&ed $o% su//a% >ud-/en&.As $ound 0 &'e RTC and on$(%/ed 0 &'e CA, &'e und(su&ed $a&s a%e as $o++o*s:<)e&(&(one%= Isaa V(++e-as *as &'e %e-(s&e%ed o*ne% o$ a a%e+ o$ +and (n Tu-ue-a%ao, Ca-aan, ?no*n as Lo& 263!C o$ &'e Su0d(v(s(on +an )sd.211966, 0e(n- a o%&(on o$ Lo& 263!, Cad. 151, on&a(n(n- an a%ea o$ 1,26! s@ua%e /e&e%s, /o%e o% +ess, s(&ua&ed a& #-. )en-ue, Tu-ue-a%ao, Ca-aan, ove%ed 0 T%ans$e% Ce%&($(a&e o$ T(&+e No. T6389 o$ &'e Re-(s&e% o$ eeds o$ Ca-aan. In o%de% &o seu%e &'e  a/en& o$ a +oan $%o/ &'e eve+o/en& #an? o$ &'e )'(+((nes  #)4 &'e <e&(&(one%= ons&(&u&ed a %ea+ es&a&e /o%&-a-e ove% &'e sa(d a%e+ o$ +and (n $avo% o$ #). T'e sa(d +oan and /o%&-a-e *as su0se@uen&+ &%ans$e%%ed 0 &'e #) &o &'e o/e u&ua+ eve+o/en& Bund  B4. ;'en &'e <e&(&(one%= $a(+ed &o se&&+e '(s +oan, &'e %ea+ es&a&e /o%&-a-e 'e ons&(&u&ed ove% &'e %oe%& *as $o%e+osed, &'e %oe%& *as so+d a& u0+( au&(on and, as &'e  B *as (&se+$ &'e '(-'es&  0(dde% a& su' u0+( au&(on, a e%&($(a&e o$ s'e%($$s sa+e *as (ssued and, &'e%ea$&e%, %e-(s&e%ed *(&' &'e Re-(s&e% o$ eeds on a%' 8, 1996. # v(%&ue o$ a o*e% o$ a&&o%ne eeu&ed 0 <e&(&(one%s= *($e, a%(+ou C. V(++e-as (n $avo% o$ G+o%(a Roa Ca&%a+, &'e +a&&e% %edee/ed &'e  %oe%& $%o/ &'e  B.   On a 1!, 1996, G+o%(a R. Ca&%a+ Ca&%a+4, 0 v(%&ue o$ &'e sa/e o*e% o$ a&&o%ne, eeu&ed a eed o$ Sa+e (n $avo% o$ %esonden&.)e&(&(one% +a(/s &'a& &'e o*e% o$ a&&o%ne eeu&ed (n $avo% o$ Ca&%a+,  e&(&(one%s /o&'e%(n+a*, %ea&ed a %(n(a+a-en& %e+a&(ons'( on+  0e&*een '(s *($e, a%(+ou Ca&%a+V(++e-as a%(+ou4 as %(n(a+, and Ca&%a+, as a-en&, and &'en on+ $o% &'e +a&&e% &o ad/(n(s&e% &'e %oe%&(es o$ &'e $o%/e%7 &'a& 'e neve% au&'o%(Ded Ca&%a+ &o ad/(n(s&e% '(s  %oe%&(es, a%&(u+a%+, 'e%e(n su0>e& %oe%&7 and &'a& Ca&%a+ 'ad no au&'o%(& &o eeu&e &'e eed o$ A0so+u&e Sa+e (n $avo% o$ &'e %esonden&, s(ne $%o/ &'e ve% *o%d(n-s o$ &'e o*e% o$ a&&o%ne, s'e 'ad no se(a+ au&'o%(& &o se++ o% onve an se($( %ea+ %oe%&.On ee/0e% 19, 1996, &'e RTC d(s/(ssed &'e Co/+a(n&, %u+(n- &'a& &'e &eno% o$ &'e o*e% o$ a&&o%ne (n @ues&(on (s 0%oad enou-' &o (n+ude &'e au&'o%(& &o se++ an %oe%& o$ &'e %(n(a+, *'o, (n &'(s ase, (s &'e e&(&(one%7 &'a& &'e a& o$ &'e a-en&, Ca&%a+, (n eeu&(n- &'e eed o$ A0so+u&e Sa+e (n $avo% o$ %esonden& *as *(&'(n 'e% o*e% o% au&'o%(&7 &'a& &'e o*e% &o en&e% (n&o an and a++ on&%a&s and a-%ee/en&s @ua+($(ed &'e sa(d o*e% o$ a&&o%ne as a se(a+ o*e% o$ a&&o%ne7 &'a& &'e eed o$ A0so+u&e Sa+e (s va+(d and 0(nds &'e %(n(a+, 'e%e(n  e&(&(one%7 &'a& &'e au&'o%(& &o se++ a/e $%o/ 0o&' &'e e&(&(one% and '(s *($e, a%(+ou, s(ne &'e e&(&(one% '(/se+$ s(-ned &'e o*e% o$ a&&o%ne a$$(%/(n- &'e au&'o%(& o$ &'e a-en&, Ca&%a+7 and &'a& even ($ Ca&%a+ (n $a&eeeded 'e% au&'o%(&, &'e a& (s dee/ed &o 'ave 0een e%$o%/ed *(&'(n &'e soe o$ &'e a-en&s au&'o%(& ($ su' (s *(&'(n &'e &e%/s o$ &'e o*e% o$ a&&o%ne as *%(&&en.  (ssa&(s$(ed, &'e e&(&(one% aea+ed &'e adve%se >ud-/en& &o &'e CA +a(/(n- &'a& &'e &%(a+ ou%& e%%ed (n $(nd(n- &'a& &'e%e *as a %(n(a+a-en& %e+a&(ons'( 0e&*een e&(&(one% and Ca&%a+7 and &'a& &'e &%(a+ ou%& e%%ed (n on+ud(n- &'a& &'e o*e% o$ a&&o%ne (s a se(a+ o*e% o$ a&&o%ne *(&' an au&'o%(& &o se++.On Nove/0e% 28, 21, &'e CA %ende%ed &'e 'e%e(n assa(+ed e(s(on, a$$(%/(n- (n &o&o &'e RTC Jud-/en& and d(s/(ss(n- &'e aea+ $o% +a? o$ /e%(&.T'e CA 'e+d &'a& *'en &'e %ede/&(on o$ &'e %oe%& 'ad 0een /ade 0Ca&%a+ 0 v(%&ue o$ a Gene%a+ )o*e% o$ A&&o%ne eeu&ed (n 'e% $avo% 0 a%(+ou, (& $o++o*s &'a& &'e e&(&(one% (s no +on-e% &'e o*ne% o$ &'e su0>e& %oe%& 0u& '(s *($e, a%(+ou7 &'a& &'e (ssue as &o *'e&'e% &'e  o*e% o$ a&&o%ne *as a se(a+ o% -ene%a+ one (s o$ no /o/en&, 0eause &'e e&(&(one% *as no +on-e% &'e o*ne% o$ &'e %oe%& *'en (& *as so+d7 (n o&'e% *o%ds, an d(sos(&(on o$ &'e %oe%& needs no o*e% o$ a&&o%ne $%o/ &'e e&(&(one% '(/se+$7 &'a& &'e e&(&(one% s(-ned &'e Gene%a+ )o*e% o$ A&&o%ne a0ove &'e *o%d on$o%/e, onno&(n- an (/+(ed ad/(ss(on &'a& 'e *as no& an/o%e &'e o*ne% o$ &'e sa(d  %oe%&7 and, $(na++, &'a& &'e eed o$ Sa+e 0e&*een a%(+ou &'%ou-' Ca&%a+4 and %esonden& (s va+(d.ene, 'e%e(n )e&(&(on, on &'e $o++o*(n- -%ounds:I.I& (s su0/(&&ed &'a& &'e Cou%& o$ Aea+s d(s%e-a%ded &'e +a* and a+(a0+e de(s(ons o$ &'e ono%a0+e Cou%& *'en (& d(s/(ssed &'e o/+a(n& on &'e -%ound &'a& e&(&(one% *as no +on-e% &'e o*ne% o$ &'e  %oe%& su0>e& o$ &'e ase. As a onse@uene, (& d(d no& /a&&e% *'e&'e% o% no& &'e -ene%a+ o*e% o$ a&&o%ne o% a se(a+ o*e% o$ a&&o%ne *as (ssued (n &'(s (ns&an& ase.II.I& (s $u%&'e% su0/(&&ed &'a& &'e Cou%& o$ Aea+s d(s%e-a%ded &'e +a* and &'e a+(a0+e de(s(onS o$ &'e ono%a0+e Cou%& *'en (& u'e+d &'e va+(d(& o$ &'e eed o$ A0so+u&e Sa+e eeu&ed (n $avo% OB V(&o% L(n-an.In '(s e/o%andu/, e&(&(one% a%-ues &'a& &'e -ene%a+ o*e% o$ a&&o%ne o$ Ca&%a+ d(d no& +o&'e 'e% *(&' au&'o%(& &o se++ &'e %oe%& o$  e&(&(one%7 and &'a& &'e eed o$ A0so+u&e Sa+e eeu&ed 0e&*een &'e %esonden& and Ca&%a+ *as no& va+(d.On &'e o&'e% 'and, %esonden&, (n '(s e/o%anda, on&ends &'a& &'e  e&(&(one% 'as no ause o$ a&(on a-a(ns& '(/. e /a(n&a(ns &'a&  e&(&(one% +os& '(s o*ne%s'( o$ &'e %oe%& a$&e% (& *as e&%a>ud((a++ $o%e+osed and so+d &o  B7 &'a& *'a& *as +e$& $o% e&(&(one% *as on+ &'e %(-'& o$ %ede/&(on, a %(-'& 'e s'a%ed *(&' '(s *($e7 &'a& ($ &'e%e *as %ea++ a +e-a+ de$e& (n &'e sa+e, &'e e%son *'o 'as &'e +e-a+ s&and(n- and&'e %(-'& &o @ues&(on &'e va+(d(& o$ &'e sa+e (n '(s na/e (s a%(+ou, &'e  e%son *'o ee%(sed &'e %(-'& o$ %ede/&(on and &'e e%son (n *'o/ &'e %(-'& &o d(sose +e-a++ %es(des7 and &'a& a%(+ou 'as a++ &'(s &(/e %e/a(ned ass(ve.T'e e&(&(on /us& $a(+.T'e%e a%e &*o %(n(a+ (ssues %a(sed 0 &'e +ead(n-s (n &'e %esen&  e&(&(on &'a& /us& 0e %eso+ved: B(%s&, *'e&'e% a%(+ou, &'e *($e o$ &'e  e&(&(one%, as suesso%(n(n&e%es&, /a va+(d+ %edee/ &'e %oe%& (n @ues&(on7 and seond, *'e&'e% &'e e&(&(one% 'as a ause o$ a&(on a-a(ns&&'e %esonden&.;as &'e%e a va+(d %ede/&(on e$$e&ed 0 a%(+ouFT'e ans*e% (s (n &'e a$$(%/a&(ve.Se&(on 6 o$ A& No. 3135 %ov(des:Se. 6. In a++ ases (n *'(' an e&%a>ud((a+ sa+e (s /ade unde% &'e se(a+ o*e% 'e%e(n0e$o%e %e$e%%ed &o, &'e de0&o%, '(s suesso%s(n(n&e%es& o% an >ud((a+ %ed(&o% o% >ud-/en& %ed(&o% o$ sa(d de0&o%, o% an e%son 'av(n- a +(en on &'e %oe%& su0se@uen& &o &'e /o%&-a-e o% deed o$ &%us& unde% *'(' &'e %oe%& (s so+d, /a %edee/ &'e sa/e a& an &(/e *(&'(n &'e &e%/ o$ one ea% $%o/ and a$&e% &'e da&e o$ sa+e7 and su' %ede/&(on s'a++ 0e -ove%ned 0 &'e %ov(s(ons o$ se&(on $ou% 'und%ed and s(&$ou% &o $ou% 'und%ed and s(&s(, (n+us(ve, o$ &'e Code o$ C(v(+ )%oedu%e, (n so $a% as &'ese a%e no& (nons(s&en& *(&' &'e  %ov(s(ons o$ &'(s A&. e/'as(s su+(ed4  Se&(on 2!, Ru+e 39 o$ &'e 199! Ru+es o$ C(v(+ )%oedu%e, %ov(des:SEC. 2!. ;'o /a %edee/ %ea+ %oe%& so so+d. Rea+ %oe%& so+d as  %ov(ded (n &'e +as& %eed(n- se&(on, o% an a%& &'e%eo$ so+d sea%a&e+,/a 0e %edee/ed (n &'e /anne% 'e%e(na$&e% %ov(ded, 0 &'e $o++o*(n-  e%sons:a4 T'e >ud-/en& o0+(-o%, o% '(s suesso%(n(n&e%es& (n &'e *'o+e o% an a%& o$ &'e %oe%&7   T'e suesso%(n(n&e%es& o$ &'e >ud-/en& de0&o% %e$e%%ed &o (n &'e a0ove %ov(s(on (n+udes a e%son *'o sueeds &o '(s %oe%& 0 oe%a&(on o$ +a*, o% a e%son *(&' a >o(n& (n&e%es& (n &'e %oe%&, o% '(s souse o% 'e(%s.Se&(on 33, Ru+e 39, Ru+es o$ Cou%&, s&a&es:SEC. 33. eed and ossess(on &o 0e -(ven a& e(%a&(on o$ %ede/&(on  e%(od7 0 *'o/ eeu&ed o% -(ven.  I$ no %ede/&(on 0e /ade *(&'(n one 14 ea% $%o/ &'e da&e o$ &'e %e-(s&%a&(on o$ &'e e%&($(a&e o$ sa+e, &'e u%'ase% (s en&(&+ed &o a onveane and ossess(on o$ &'e %oe%&7 o%, ($ so %edee/ed *'eneve% s(& 64 das 'ave e+ased and no o&'e% %ede/&(on 'as 0een /ade, and no&(e &'e%eo$ -(ven, and &'e &(/e $o% %ede/&(on 'as e(%ed, &'e +as& %ede/&(one% (s en&(&+ed &o &'e onveane and ossess(on7 0u& (n a++ ases &'e >ud-/en& o0+(-o% s'a++ 'ave &'e en&(%e e%(od o$ one 14 ea% $%o/ &'e da&e o$ &'e %e-(s&%a&(on o$ &'e sa+e &o %edee/ &'e %oe%&. T'e deed s'a++ 0e eeu&ed 0 &'e o$$(e% /a?(n- &'e sa+e o% 0 '(s suesso% (n o$$(e, and (n &'e +a&&e% ase s'a++ 'ave &'e sa/e va+(d(& as &'ou-' &'e o$$(e% /a?(n- &'e sa+e 'ad on&(nued (n o$$(e and eeu&ed (&.Hon &'e e(%a&(on o$ &'e %(-'& o$ %ede/&(on, &'e u%'ase% o% %ede/&(one% s'a++ 0e su0s&(&u&ed &o and a@u(%e a++ &'e %(-'&s, &(&+e, (n&e%es& and +a(/ o$ &'e >ud-/en& o0+(-o% &o &'e %oe%& a& &'e &(/e o$ &'e +ev. T'e ossess(on o$ &'e %oe%& s'a++ 0e -(ven &o &'e u%'ase% o% +as& %ede/&(one% 0 &'e sa/e o$$(e% un+ess a &'(%d a%& (s a&ua++ 'o+d(n- &'e %oe%& adve%se+ &o &'e >ud-/en& o0+(-o%.e/'as(s su+(ed4Hnde% &'e a0ove %ov(s(on, e&(&(one% ou+d 'ave %edee/ed &'e %oe%& $%o/ a%(+ou a$&e% s'e 'ad %edee/ed (&. T'e +ead(n-s $(+ed and &'e %eo%ds o$ &'(s ase do no& s'o* &'a& e&(&(one% ee%(sed sa(d %(-'&. Conse@uen&+, as o%%e&+ 'e+d 0 &'e CA, a%(+ou a@u(%ed o*ne%s'( o$ &'e su0>e& %oe%&. A++ %(-'&s and &(&+e o$ &'e >ud-/en& o0+(-o% a%e &%ans$e%%ed uon &'e e(%a&(on o$ &'e %(-'& o$ %ede/&(on.And *'e%e &'e %ede/&(on (s /ade unde% a %oe%& %e-(/e -ove%ned 0 &'e on>u-a+ a%&ne%s'( o$ -a(ns, A%&(+e 19 o$ &'e Ba/(+ Code  %ov(des &'a& %oe%& a@u(%ed 0 %(-'& o$ %ede/&(on (s &'e e+us(ve  %oe%& o$ &'e souses %edee/(n- &'e %oe%&.C+ea%+, &'e%e$o%e, a%(+ou, as o*ne%, 'ad &'e %(-'& &o se++ &'e %oe%& &o ano&'e%.T'(s 0%(n-s us &o &'e %eso+u&(on o$ &'e seond (ssue  *'e&'e% e&(&(one% 'as a ause o$ a&(on a-a(ns& %esonden&  and &'e ans*e% (s (n &'e ne-a&(ve.A ause o$ a&(on (s an a& o% o/(ss(on o$ &'e de$endan& (n v(o+a&(on o$ &'e +e-a+ %(-'& o$ &'e +a(n&($$. A o/+a(n& s&a&es a ause o$ a&(on *'en (& on&a(ns &'%ee essen&(a+ e+e/en&s: 14 a %(-'& (n $avo% o$ &'e +a(n&($$ 0 *'a&eve% /eans and unde% *'a&eve% +a* (& a%(ses7 24 an o0+(-a&(on o$ &'ede$endan& &o %ese& su' %(-'&7 and 34 &'e a& o% o/(ss(on o$ &'e de$endan& v(o+a&es &'e %(-'& o$ &'e +a(n&($$.In &'e %esen& ase, &'e%e (s no %oe%& %(-'& &'a& e(s&s (n $avo% o$ &'e  e&(&(one%, and, *(&' /o%e %eason, no su' o0+(-a&(on a%(ses (n 0e'a+$ o$ &'e de$endan&, 'e%e(n %esonden&, &o %ese& su' %(-'&. T'e%e *as no v(o+a&(on o$ a +e-a+ %(-'& o$ &'e e&(&(one%.I& /us& 0e s&%essed &'a& &'e%e (s no a++e-a&(on o% %oo$ &'a& a%(+ou %edee/ed &'e %oe%& (n 0e'a+$ o$ &'e e&(&(one%a%(+ou d(d no& a& asa-en& o$ &'e e&(&(one%. Ra&'e%, s'e ee%(sed &'e %(-'& o$ %ede/&(on (n 'e% o*n %(-'& as suesso%(n(n&e%es& o$ &'e e&(&(one%. Hnde% &'e (%u/s&anes, s'ou+d &'e%e 0e an %(-'& v(o+a&ed, &'e a--%(eved a%& (s a%(+ou, e&(&(one%s *($e. T'e %oe%& (n @ues&(on *as &'e e+us(ve  %oe%& o$ a%(+ou 0 v(%&ue o$ 'e% %ede/&(on. T'us, e&(&(one% 'as no va+(d ause o$ a&(on a-a(ns& &'e %esonden&.  Conse@uen&+, &'e @ues&(on *'e&'e% Ca&%a+ 'ad va+(d+ so+d &'e su0>e&  %oe%& &o %esonden& 0 v(%&ue o$ &'e Gene%a+ )o*e% o$ A&&o%ne eeu&ed 0 a%(+ou, (s no& *(&'(n &'e %ea+/ o$ &'e Cou%&s >u%(sd(&(on &o%eso+ve (n &'(s ase as sa(d (ssue (s no& %oe%+ %a(sed 0 &'e %(-'&  e%son, a%(+ou. (ves&ed o$ a++ (n&e%es& ove% &'e %oe%&, &'e e&(&(one% 'as eased &o 0e &'e %oe% a%& *'o /a 'a++en-e &'e va+(d(& o$ &'e sa+e. o%eove%, s(ne, as a %u+e, &'e a-en, as a on&%a&, (s 0(nd(n- on+ 0e&*een &'e on&%a&(n- a%&(es, &'en on+ &'e a%&(es, as *e++ as &'e &'(%d e%son *'o &%ansa&s *(&' &'e a%&(es &'e/se+ves, /a @ues&(on &'e va+(d(& o$ &'e a-en o% &'e v(o+a&(on o$ &'e &e%/s and ond(&(ons $ound &'e%e(n. T'(s %u+e (s a o%o++a% o$ &'e $o%e-o(n- do&%(ne on &'e %(-'&s o$ %ea+ a%&(es (n(n&e%es&.T'e Cou%& anno& -%an& &'e %e+(e$ %aed $o% (n e&(&(one%s Co/+a(n& as &o da/a-es, ons(de%(n- &'a& &'e (ssue on da/a-es *as dee/ed *a(ved *'en &'e a%&(es +(/(&ed &'e/se+ves &o &'e +e-a+ (ssue a%%(ved a& du%(n- &'e %e&%(a+ (n &'e RTC.;EREBORE, &'e e&(&(on (s ENIE . T'e e(s(on and Reso+u&(on o$ &'e Cou%& o$ Aea+s a%e ABBIRE .Cos&s a-a(ns& &'e e&(&(one%.SO OR ERE .
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