Women's Collective Action in Agricultural Markets: Synthesis of preliminary findings from Ethiopia, Mali, and Tanzania | Gender | Agriculture

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This paper presents an analytical framework and preliminary findings from the second phase of the Researching Women’s Collective Action project. It documents participatory field research in Ethiopia, Mali, and Tanzania, covering 15 agricultural sub-sectors. Findings are reported on women smallholders’ motivations and capacities to engage in collective action, as well as on gender-based patterns and outcomes of collective action. The main benefits that women derive from various types of collective action are described, highlighting where collective action is addressing key barriers faced by women in engaging in markets and where current strategies are lacking. Emerging themes will be further explored and key hypotheses tested in the final phase of the project.
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  Oxfam Research Reports Women’s Collective Action in Agricultural Markets Synthesis of preliminary findings from Ethiopia, Mali, and Tanzania Sally Baden Carine Pionetti October 2011 This paper presents an analytical framework and preliminary findings from the second phase of the Researching Women’s Collective Action project. It documents participatory field research in Ethiopia, Mali, and Tanzania, covering 15 agricultural sub-sectors. Findings are reported on women smallholders’ motiva tions and capacities to engage in collective action, as well as on gender-based patterns and outcomes of collective action. The main benefits that women derive from various types of collective action are described, highlighting where collective action is addressing key barriers faced by women in engaging in markets and where current strategies are lacking. Emerging themes will be further explored and key hypotheses tested in the final phase of the project. www.oxfam.org.uk    Women’s Collective Action in Agricultural Markets , Synthesis of Findings, October   2012 2 Acknowledgements This paper is based on field research conducted by ten researchers in the three countries of study. They are: Berhanu Adenew and Zewdi Abadi Alemu (Ethiopia); Yacouba M. Coulibaly, Faoussatou Tadjou, Awa Sidibe, and Elise Bagayoko (Mali); and Evelyne A. Lazaro, Christopher G. Magomba, John Jeckoniah, and Joseph Masimba (Tanzania). We extend special thanks to these researchers for their findings, insights, and commitment. The analytical framework on collective action and much of the analysis presented in this paper owes much to Daniela Lloyd-Williams, lead research adviser during Phase II. Special thanks also to the many people who have reviewed and offered useful comments during critical moments of the research, particularly the members of the project‘s International Advisory Group. We particularly acknowledge Thalia Kidder, Ralph Roothaert, Claudia Canepa, Luisa Enria, and Amanda Shriwise from Oxfam; Andrea Rodericks from CARE; Sally Smith, a consultant researcher; Anuj Jain, Yogesh Ghore, and Alison Mathie from Coady International Institute; Mary McVay from Enterprise Development Kiosk; and Ruth Vargas-Hill from IFPRI for their important contributions to this paper.   Finally, thank you also to Bertus Wennink and Thea Hilhorst of the Royal Tropical Institute from KIT for their contributions to Phase I of the research.    Women’s Collective Action in Agricultural Markets , Synthesis of Findings, October   2012 3 Contents Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................ 2   List of abbreviations ....................................................................................................... 4   List of tables ..................................................................................................................... 4   List of figures ................................................................................................................... 4 Summary .......................................................................................................................... 4   1.   Introduction ........................................................................................................... 4   1.1.   Background to Researching Women‘s Collective Action  ................................ 7   1.2.   Purpose and overview of paper ........................................................................... 7   2.   Underlying concepts and framework of analysis ........................................... 9   2.1.   Research rationale .................................................................................................. 9   2.2.   Defining collective action ..................................................................................... 9   2.3.   Gender, agricultural markets, and collective action ....................................... 10   2.4.   Framework of analysis ........................................................................................ 11   3.   Overview of Phase II research .......................................................................... 13   3.1.   Research aims, approach, and methodology ................................................... 13   3.2   Scope and limitations of research to date ......................................................... 14   4.   Findings from Phase II ...................................................................................... 16   4.1.   Motivations and capacities to engage in collective action ............................. 16   4.1.1. Constraints to women‘s engagement in agricultural markets  ............ 16   4.1.2. Factors influencing motivations and capacities to engage in collective action in markets .................................................................................................. 17   4.1.3. Conclusions and emerging themes for further research ...................... 18   4.2.   Gendered patterns of collective action ............................................................. 19   4.2.1. Legal and policy context of collective action ......................................... 19   4.2.2. Characterisation of collective action by country ................................... 21   4.2.3. Patterns emerging from the country characterisation .......................... 23   4.2.4. Group dynamics and evolution ............................................................... 26   4.2.5. Conclusions and emerging issues for further research ........................ 27   4.3.   Outcomes of collective action ............................................................................ 27   4.3.1. Overview ..................................................................................................... 28   4.3.2. Benefits from women‘s collective action by country and sub -sector . 28   4.3.3. Evidence on the role of collective action in overcoming constraints in women‘s access to markets  ................................................................................. 32   4.3.4. Conclusions and emerging issues ........................................................... 33   5.   Conclusions and recommendations ................................................................ 34   5.1.   Preliminary findings and emerging hypotheses ............................................. 34   5.2 Which women participate in and benefit from collective action in agricultural markets? ........................................................................................................................... 34   5.3 What benefits do women gain from participation in collective action? .......... 35   5.4 To what extent is co llective action overcoming barriers to women‘s access to markets? ........................................................................................................................... 36   5.5 Which strategies are effective in supporting equitable outcomes of collective action for women? .......................................................................................................... 36   References ....................................................................................................................... 42   About the authors ......................................................................................................... 46   Annex 1: Selected outcomes of Phase I research ..................................................... 46   Annex 2: Detailed presentation of analytical framework ..................................... 49   Annex 3: Characterisation of collective action by country .................................... 53      Women’s Collective Action in Agricultural Markets , Synthesis of Findings, October   2012 4 List of abbreviations CA Collective action CAEB Conseil Appui pour l’Education a la Base  (Council Support for Basic Education) CAPRi Collective Action and Property Rights PASDEP Plan for Accelerated Sustainable Development to End Poverty 2005 – 2010 RWCA Researching Women‘s Collective Action  project WCA Women‘s collective action  USAID United States Agency for International Development List of tables Table 1: Summary of collective action groups studied by country, region, and sub-sector ........................................................................................................................ 14   Table 2: Location of collective action in value chain segments and associated services in the 15 sub-sectors studied ......................................................................... 21 Table 3: Benefit ranking across sub-sectors: Tanzania.............................................. 28   Table 4: Benefits ranking across sub-sectors: Mali .................................................... 29   Table 5: Benefit ranking across sub-sectors: Ethiopia ............................................... 31   Table 6: Sub-sectors selected for research in Phase I ................................................ 47   Table 7: Overview of characteristics of selected sub-sectors in Mali ...................... 48   Table 8: Characterisation of collective action groups across market types and sub-sectors in Tanzania ......................................................................................................... 54   Table 9: Characterisation of collective action groups across market types and sub-sectors in Mali ................................................................................................................. 54   Table 10: Characterisation of collective action groups across market types and sub-sectors in Ethiopia .................................................................................................. 55   List of figures Figure 1: Analytical framework for women‘s collective action in agricultural markets ............................................................................................................................ 12   Figure 2: Levels of specialisation of collective action in different sub-sectors for Tanzania (TZ) and Mali (M) ......................................................................................... 24   Figure 3: Relationship between incidence of women-only groups and degree of specialisation in eight sub-sectors (Mali and Ethiopia) ............................................ 25   Figure 4: Relationship between incidence of women-only groups and level of formality in six sub-sectors (Mali) ............................................................................... 26  
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