Women's Collective Action: Unlocking the potential of agricultural markets | Collective Action

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  15 Is women’s collective action in Africanagricultural markets the missing link for empowerment? An Oxfam International research report   Women’s Collective Action Unlocking the potential of agricultural markets An Oxfam International research report  15 Is women’s collective action in Africanagricultural markets the missing link for empowerment? An Oxfam International research report   www.womenscollectiveaction.com  Is women’s collective action in African agricultural markets the missing link for empowerment? An Oxfam International research report 16  4 Women’s Collective Action: Unlocking the potential of agricultural markets An Oxfam International research report Contents Abbreviations 6Glossary 8Acknowledgements 9Executive summary 10 Key findings 11Key recommendations 12 1. Introduction 14 1.1 Why is women’s collective action important in agricultural markets in Sub-Saharan Africa? 151.2 Research questions 171.3 What was done? 171.4 How was it done? 181.5 Structure of the report 20 2. The context for women’s collective action in Ethiopia, Mali and Tanzania 21 2.1 Factors shaping women’s collective action: an analytical framework 222.2 Gender relations and women’s motivations and capacities to engage in collective action 232.3 Farming systems in areas of study 252.4 Market systems in areas of study 262.5 The policy and legal framework for women’s collective action 272.6 Comparison of collective action in the three countries 292.7 Development actors’ strategies supporting collective action 29 3. Which women participate in collective action in markets, and why? 32 3.1 Group characteristics and composition 333.2 Profile of women members and non-members 343.3 Factors influencing women’s participation in groups 363.4 Leadership and women’s participation in groups 38 4. How does collective action help women overcome barriers to their engagement in markets? 39 4.1 Market outlets for group members 404.2 Access to productive resources and training 424.3 Mobility constraints 424.4 Time poverty and social constraints 43 5. What are the economic benefits of participation in collective action for women small-scale farmers? 44 5.1 Assessing the economic benefits of women’s collective action membership 455.2 Economic benefits gained by women’s collective action members 455.3 Factors contributing to economic benefits 47 6. Empowerment benefits of membership in women’s collective action 48 6.1 Women’s collective action group membership and empowerment outcomes 496.2 Factors affecting empowerment outcomes 51
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