Women's Empowerment in Indonesia: Evaluation of Papua women's empowerment

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This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2013/14, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in October 2013 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the ‘Papua women's empowerment’ (PAWE) project. The overall objective of the project was to improve women’s awareness and participation in the decision-making and implementation of a large-scale national community-driven development programme called PNPM Mandiri/RESPEK. This was to be achieved by the combination of a grant programme and the training of 50 local facilitators (‘cadre members’) whose mandate was to provide gender training to beneficiary women’s groups and local government officials. The grant programme provided funding to women’s groups to organize women’s capacity building activities (e.g. training on business economic planning, proposal writing, financial record keeping, vocational skills and gender issues etc.). In addition to this, the project also provided support to women’s groups in designing project proposals and running group activities. This project was funded by the Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF), supervised by the World Bank and implemented by Oxfam in six districts in Papua Province and four districts in West Papua Province, between May 2009 and April 2013. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews. 
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  EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES ‘enhancing effectiveness through evidence-based learning’  EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES 2013/14: ARMENIA BOLIVIA COLOMBIA DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGOENGLAND ETHIOPIA GEORGIA HAITI HONDURAS INDONESIA JORDAN LEBANON MALAWI MALI   NEPAL NIGER PAKISTAN RUSSIA RWANDA SCOTLAND VIETNAM ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE The overall objective of the project was to improve women’s awareness and participation in the decision-making and implementation of a large-scale national community-driven development programme called PNPM Mandiri/RESPEK. This was to be achieved by a combination of a grant programme and the training of 50 local facilitators (‘cadre members’) whose mandate was to provide gender training to beneciary women’s groups and local government ofcials. The grant programme provided funding to women’s groups to organise women’s capacity building activities (e.g. training on business economic planning, proposal writing, nancial record keeping, vocational skills, and gender issues, etc.). In addition to this, the project also provided support to women’s groups to design project proposals and run group activities. This project was funded by the Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF), supervised by the World Bank and implemented by Oxfam in six districts in Papua Province and four districts in West Papua Province. Women’s EmpowermentWomen acquire leadership and vocational skillsCadres provide gender training to women’s groupsGrant programme to individual cadres to gain experience in leadership and/or skillsSelection and training of trainers – of 53 cadre members under supervision of steering committeeGrant programme to women’s groups to organise women’s capacity building activities (leadership and/or vocational skills) Cadres support group activitiesIncreased participation in PNPM and other CDD programmesLocal leaders support gender equality and also women’s involvement in decision makingWomen build awareness on gender issues, particularly in PNPMCadre provide gender training to local PNPM Mandiri & local government Papua women’s empowerment Project date: May 2009 - April 2013Evaluation: October 2013Publication: March 2015 Women’s Empowerment Indonesia2013/14 This diagram presents how the project was expected to achieve change, through project activities and outcomes that were expected to contribute to the overall goal of the project. Outcomes and goals that found evidence of positive impact are highlighted in green, those where evidence of positive impact was not clear or not found are shown in white.  Results Evaluation Method Full version of this report and more information can be found at Oxfam’s Policy and Practice website: www.oxfam.org.uk/effectiveness For more information, contact Oxfam’s Programme Quality Team - ppat@oxfam.org.uk Household surveys were carried out in order to compare members of women’s groups in Jayapura, Merauke and Biak-Numfor district that had been supported by the project with those in neighbouring villages. A ‘quasi-experimental’ evaluation design was used whereby data from interviews with members of the women’s groups and with women’s groups of neighbouring villages where the project had not been implemented were analysed using propensity-score matching and multivariate regression.See the document ‘How are effectiveness reviews carried out?’ for more information on evaluation design. Full details about the specic evaluation design used in this case are contained in the full report of the Effectiveness Review. Going forward The review highlighted the importance of having knowledgeable team in place who understand the context. However, it also identied a need for capacity building to strengthen project design and implementation. Building on improved assessments of partner capacity, Oxfam in Indonesia will therefore invest in building the capacity of partners and project staff on gender and power analyses, project cycle management, and theory of change. In addition, future projects will more clearly dene pre conditions for success, establishing good quality baselines, including mechanisms for impact monitoring, more closely monitoring key milestones during implementation, and embedding reection and learning mechanisms as a key part of strengthened project monitoring, evaluation and learning framework. Photo credit: Oxfam   Evidence of positive impact Commentary  Awareness of and participation in PNPM MANDIRI/RESPEK Project outcome Women participating into the project are more aware of the PNPM Mandriri/RESPEK project. They are more likely to have applied to PNPM Mandriri/RESPEK funding and participated in village meetings where activities of PNPM Mandriri/RESPEK were discussed.   Vocational and entrepreneurial skillsWomen participating into the project are more likely to be participating in group activities and they feel more condence about their group’s skills activities.   Self-perceptionThere is some evidence suggesting that women that participated into the project present higher measure of self-condence and ability to overcome difculties. There are no evidence suggesting changes in attitudes toward women’s rights.   YESYESTo some extentPersonal Freedom Beneciary women appear to be more acceptable towards domestic violence than comparison women, and scored lower on the freedom of movement indicator.    Access to and control over resourcesThere is no evidence suggesting higher independent income or higher ownership of strategic assets.   Support from social networksWomen participating into the project present higher group enrolment than women in the comparison group.   NONOTo some extent Ability to make decisions and inuence There is some evidence suggesting that intervention women are less likely to be involved in household decision making on expenditure and management.   NO The PAWE project was implemented in six districts (kabupaten) in Papua Province (Jayapura, Keerom, Biak-Numfor, Jayawijaya, Merauke and Boven-Digoel) and four districts in West Papua Province (Manokwari, Teluk Wondama, Teluk Bintuni and Sorong Selatan). Because of security concerns at the time of the Effectiveness Review, however, it was deemed impossible to visit the project areas in West Papua Province and those in Keerom in Papua Province. Furthermore, due to the dispersion of the intervention communities in Papua Province, it was logistically and nancially infeasible to visit Boven-Digoel and Jayawijaya. In light of these constraints the decision was made to focus the review on, and results applt to three of the ten districts where the project was implemented: Jayapura, Merauke and Biak-Numfor.
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