Women's Empowerment in Pakistan: Impact evaluation of the empowering small scale producers in the dairy sector project | Evaluation

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This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in December 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the ‘Empowering Small Producers especially Women in the Dairy Sector’ project. The project’s overall objective is to improve livelihoods opportunities, increasing income and employment, as well as improving women’s empowerment by improving their economic leadership in the dairy sector. The project activities were implemented by Oxfam GB in conjunction with Doaba Foundation, a local partner organisation. The review adopted a quasi-experimental impact evaluation design combined with a qualitative component. In order to measure women’s empowerment, this evaluation identified 18 indicators associated with empowerment in the dairy sector in South Punjab and employs a multidimensional measure aggregating them in one composite index. For more information, the data for this effectiveness review is available through the UK Data Service. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews. 
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  EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES ‘enhancing effectiveness through evidence-based learning’  The project’s overall objective was to improve livelihoods opportunities by increasing income and employment among members of milk cooperative groups, and promoting women’s empowerment by improving their economic leadership in the dairy sector. The project activities were implemented by Oxfam GB in conjunction with Doaba Foundation, a local partner organisation. Project activities included the formation of one enterprise in the dairy sector, and the establishment of ten collection centres where farmers could sell their milk production. Other activities also included the formation of ten community groups which provided training on milk production, animal health and dairy market in order to improve the quality and quantity of the milk produced by the farmers. The project started in 2011, supporting four cooperatives in four tehsils in the Muzaffargah district, South Punjab. In 2012 the project was interrupted until January 2013 when it then continued with only one of the four srcinal cooperatives. The evaluation focussed only on the impact on project participants involved from 2011 to 2014. Project outcomesProject goals ActivitiesHousehold incomeFarmers are producing milk of higher qualityFarmers are increasing the milk productionFarmers have more channels through which to sell milkEstablishing milk collection centresTrainingsWomen’s empowermentFarmers are selling milk at an increased priceIncrease farmers’ knowledge on dairy marketIncrease farmers’ knowledge on animal health and practiceFormation of milk enterprise50% of farmers involved in the project activities and 50% of the enterprise staff are women Empowering small scale producers in the dairy sector  Project date: January 2011 - April 2014 Evaluation: December 2014Publication: October 2015 Women’s Empowerment Pakistan2014/15 This diagram presents how the project was expected to achieve change, through project activities and outcomes that were expected to contribute to the overall goal of the project.EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES 2014/15: AFGHANISTAN BANGLADESH CAMBODIA CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLICCHAD ETHIOPIA LEBANON NICARAGUA PAKISTAN PHILIPPINES PHILIPPINES (humanitarian) POLICY & PRACTICE WEBSITE SOMALIA SOUTH SUDAN   TANZANIA THAILAND UGANDA YEMEN  Results Evaluation Method Full version of this report and more information can be found at Oxfam’s Policy and Practice website: www.oxfam.org.uk/effectiveness For more information, contact Oxfam’s Programme Quality Team - ppat@oxfam.org.uk    Evidence of positive impact Commentary Improved knowledge on milk production Project outcome The evaluation found evidence the project led to higher levels of knowledge related to dairy market, milk production and improved adoption of animal techniques such as vaccination and de-worming. Improved quality and quantity of milk produced The evaluation did not nd evidence of increased quantity or quality of milk produced which is attributable to the project. Improved income and wealth The evaluation failed to nd evidence of higher income or wealth attributable to the project intervention. YesNoNoWomen’s Empowerment There is evidence the project led to an increase in the overall women’s empowerment index. There is evidence of improved empowerment indicators on: self-condence, personal autonomy, group participation, independent income, power in markets, control over time, and safety of movements outside the house. However there is no evidence of change in: opinions on women’s economic role, acceptability towards violence against women, household decision making power and control of assets within the households. YesThe review adopted a quasi-experimental impact evaluation design combined with a qualitative component. The quantitative component involved comparing women that had been supported by the project with women in neighbouring communities that had similar characteristics in 2010. Data from a random sample of 300 women participating in the project, and a sample of 500 women in neighbouring communities never involved in any Oxfam project, were analysed using propensity-score matching and multivariate regression in order to control for observable demographic and socio-economic characteristics before the project started. The qualitative component informed decisions taken when developing the quantitative survey instrument and in interpreting data analysis. In order to measure women’s empowerment this evaluation identied 18 indicators associated with empowerment in women in the dairy sector in South Punjab and employed a multidimensional measure aggregating them in one composite index. See the ‘How are effectiveness reviews carried out?’ document for more information on evaluation design. Details about specic evaluation design used in this case are contained in the full report of the Effectiveness Review. Going forward The review found evidence the project was successful in changing the behaviour of project participants – women’s self condence improved, as well as their personal autonomy and perception of how safe it was to move around outside of the house. These activities will be replicated in future programmes where possible and similar projects will also address functional literacy for women so they are able to keep business records. However, as a result of the review, the team identied that it is not enough to provide training to women to obtain improved quality and quantity of milk production. Specic interventions addressing behaviour change within project participants and their adoption of new ways are important to help people transform themselves for progress. Activities to reect this will be implemented into future programming. The team in Pakistan will also rene the exit plan for the project, addressing the gaps identied during the review. The women’s empowerment indicators set in the review will be applied to monitor the impact of future programmes where possible. Moreover, development projects that are aiming to demonstrate impact will include an impact evaluation framework which will include baselines with intervention and comparison groups as a part of a monitoring, evaluation, accountability and learning framework. Photo credit: Salman Shaukat/Oxfam Improved market conditions in dairy sector  The evaluation found the median price paid by the enterprise was in line with the median price paid by other channels. However the average price per litre paid to project participants was lower than the average price paid to comparison group. The evaluation also identied problems around the reliability of the project enterprise on regularly collecting milk and ensuring payments to the farmer; particularly when compared with other competitors operating in the same area. No  Linked to project logic YesYesYesYesYes
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